Chapter 7 offers is no protection of co-debtors. If someone has cosigned a loan for you, they will be held fully responsible for the debt after your personal liability has been discharged. Married couples may need to file together if many of their debts are jointly owned.
Chapter 13 does have a "co-debtor stay" that protects your coeditors during the bankruptcy, and it allows you to structure you Chapter 13 plan classifies co-signed debts specially so they are paid in full.
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Yes, but it is much more difficult than discharging other types of unsecured debt like credit cards. You have to prove “undue hardship.” But you might get lucky, if you get the right bankruptcy judge. Be sure to consider non-bankruptcy options.
Bankruptcy can eliminate some kinds of debts, like credit card debt and medical debt, but not others, like child support and (in most cases) student loans. And liens associated with "purchase money secured debts", where you have pledged collateral for a loan, also are not affected by a bankruptcy, so you can still lose the collateral to the lien-holder.
By law, child support obligations generally cannot be avoided in a bankruptcy. They pass pretty much intact.