When the Affordable Care Act was created, one of its cornerstone ideas was that all Americans should have health insurance. Until January 1, 2019, you would have faced a federal tax penalty for being uninsured -- unless you qualified for a specific exemption -- but the Trump administration set that penalty to zero.
Now, you'll have to report your coverage status on your federal tax return, but you won't have to pay a federal tax penalty if you aren't covered.
That said, as we approach open enrollment for 2023 health plans, five states have active laws imposing tax penalties on residents who don't have insurance and don't qualify for an exemption: California, the District of Columbia, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Rhode Island. Choose your state from the list on this page to learn more.